Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography with Solutions Set 10 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

  1. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Question number 1 to 14 are Multiple choice questions carrying 1 mark each.
  3. Question number 15 to 16 are Multiple source based questions carrying 3 marks each.
  4. Question number 17 to 21 are Short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 80 – 100 words.
  5. Question number 22 to 26 are Long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
  6. Question number 27 and 28 are related to identification or locating and labeling of geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.

Question 1.
The Big Bang Theory is also called the: [1]
(a) Galaxy Theory
(b) Expanding Universe Hypothesis
(c) Nebular Hypothesis
(d) Galaxy Expansion Theory
(b) Expanding Universe Hypothesis

Question 2.
Which one of the following represents the inner planets: [1]
(a) Planets between the sun and the earth
(b) Planets between the sun and the belt of asteroids
(c) Planets in gaseous state
(d) Planets without satellites
(d) Planets without satellites

Question 3.
Which type of volcanic eruptions have caused Deccan Trap formations: [1]
(a) Shield
(b) Flood
(c) Composite
(d) Caldera
(b) Flood

Question 4.
Polar-fleeing force relates to: [1]
(a) Revolution of the earth
(b) Gravitation
(c) Rotation of the earth
(d) Tides
(c) Rotation of the earth

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions

Question 5.
Which one of the following is the salient feature of metamorphic rocks: [1]
(a) Changeable
(b) Quite
(c) Crystalline
(d) Foliation
(a) Changeable

Question 6.
A deep valley with very steep to straight sides is called: [1]
(a) gorge
(b) Delta
(c) canyon
(d) ox-bow lakes
(a) gorge

Question 7.
In which of the following stages of landform development, downward cutting is dominated: [1]
(a) Youth stage
(b) Late mature stage
(c) Early mature stage
(d) Old stage
(a) Youth stage

Question 8.
The layer that contains ozone layer is called: [1]
(a) stratosphere
(b) atmosphere
(c) ionosphere
(d) mesosphere
(a) stratosphere

Question 9.
The sun is directly overhead at noon on 21st June at: [1]
(a) The equator
(b) 23.5° S
(c) 23.5° N
(d) 66.5° N
(a) The equator

Question 10.
The puffy clouds that sometimes look like pieces of floating cotton: [1]
(a) cotton cloud
(b) cumulus cloud
(c) front cloud
(d) occulant cloud
(b) cumulus cloud

Question 11.
The air that contains moisture to its full capacity: [1]
(a) Relative humidity
(b) Specific humidity
(c) Absolute humidity
(d) Saturated air
(d) Saturated air

Question 12.
Arrange the major underwater landforms in the correct order: [1]
(i) Continental slope
(ii) Continental shelf
(iii) Oceanic deeps
(iv) Deep sea plain
(a) i, ii, iii, iv
(b) iv, iii, ii, i
(c) ii, i, iv, iii
(d) iii, iv, ii, i
(c) ii, i, iv, iii

Question 13.
Make correct pairs from the following two columns and mark the correct option: [1]

1. Meteorology A Population Geography
2. Demography B Soil Geography
3. Sociology C Climato graphy
4. Pedology D Social Geography

(a) 1-B, 2-C, 3-A, 4-D
(b) 1 -A, 2-D, 3-B, 4-C
(c) 1-D, 2-B, 3-C, 4-A
(d) 1-C, 2-A, 3-D, 4-B
(d) 1-C, 2-A, 3-D, 4-B

Question 14.
Most of the Indian Peninsula will be grouped according to Koeppen’s system under: [1]
(a) “Af”
(b) “BSh”
(c) “Cfb”
(d) “Am”
(d) “Am”

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions

Question 15.
Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

Saline soils contain a larger proportion of sodium, potassium and magnesium, and thus, they are infertile and do not support any vegetative growth. They have more salts, largely because of dry climate and poor drainage. They occur in arid and semi-arid regions, and in water-logged and swampy areas.

Their structure ranges from sandy to loamy. They lack in nitrogen and calcium. Saline soils are more widespread in western Gujarat, deltas of the eastern coast and in Sunderbans areas of West Bengal. In the Rann of Kuchchh, the Southwest Monsoon brings salt particles and deposits there as a crust.

Seawater intrusions in the deltas promote the occurrence of saline soils. In the areas of intensive cultivation with excessive use of irrigation, especially in areas of Green Revolution, the fertile alluvial soils are becoming saline. Excessive irrigation with dry climatic conditions promotes capillary action, which results in the deposition of salt on the top layer of the soil. In such areas, especially in Punjab and Haryana, farmers are advised to add gypsum to solve the problem of salinity in the soil.

(i) Why do saline soils have more salts? [1]
(a) Because of dry climate
(b) Because of poor drainage
(c) Because of poor sunlight
(d) Both (a) and (c)
(d) Both (a) and (c)

(ii) Saline soils lack in: [1]
(a) Nitrogen and calcium
(b) Oxygen and calcium
(c) Nitrogen and helium
(d) All the above
(a) Nitrogen and calcium

(iii) In Punjab and Haryana, farmers are advised to add _____ to solve the problem of salinity in the soil. [1]
(a) Nitrate
(b) Gypsum
(c) Calcium
(d) Potassium
(b) Gypsum

Question 16.
Read the case study given below and answer any three of the questions that follow.

The Brahmaputra, one of the largest rivers of the world, has its origin in the Chemayungdung Glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar lake. From here, it traverses eastward longitudinally for a distance of nearly 1,200 km in a dry and flat region of southern Tibet, where it is known as the Tsangpo, which means ‘the purifier.’

The Rango Tsangpo is the major right bank tributary of this river in Tibet. It emerges as a turbulent and dynamic river after carving out a deep gorge in the Central Himalayas near Namcha Barwa (7,755 m). The river emerges from the foothills under the name of Siang or Dihang. It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh.

Flowing southwest, it receives its main left bank tributaries, viz., Dibang or Sikang and Lohit; thereafter, it is known as the Brahmaputra. The Brahmaputra receives numerous tributaries in its 750 km long journey through the Assam valley. Its major left bank tributaries are the Burhi Dihing and Dhansari (South) whereas the important right bank tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manasand, Sankosh.

The Subansiri which has its origin in Tibet, is an antecedent river. The Brahmaputra enters into Bangladesh near Dhubri and flows southward. In Bangladesh, the Tista joins it on its right bank from where the river is known as the Jamuna. It finally merges with the river Padma, which falls in the Bay of Bengal.

The Brahmaputra is well-known for floods, channel shifting and bank erosion. This is due to the fact that most of its tributaries are large, and bring large quantity of sediments owing to heavy rainfall in its catchment area.

(i) Where does the River Brahmaputra originate? [1]
(a) Chemayungdung Glacier
(b) Zemu Glacier
(c) Namik Glacier
(d) Siachen Glacier
(a) Chemayungdung Glacier

(ii) The _____ is the major right bank tributary of Brahmaputra river in Tibet. [1]
(a) Rango Tsangpo
(b) Tsangpo Rango
(c) Rancho Tsangpo
(d) Namcha Tsangpo
(a) Rango Tsangpo

(iii) The Brahmaputra enters into Bangladesh near: [1]
(a) Jaflong
(b) Mawlynnong
(c) Dhubri
(d) Langchen Khambab
(c) Dhubri

Question 17.
Discuss the distribution of the earthquake and volcanic plates on the earth. [3]
Distribution of the Earthquake and the volcanic plates on the Earth:

The plates move from the Atlantic Ocean almost parallel to the coastlines. It further extends into the Indian Ocean. It bifurcates a little South of the Indian subcontinent with one branch moving into East Africa and the other meeting a similar line from Myanmar to New Guiana. Another area of concentration coincides with the Alpine-Himalayan system and the rim of the Pacific Ocean.

In general, the foci of the Earthquakes in the areas of mid-oceanic ridges are at shallow depths whereas, along with the Alpine-Himalayan belt as well as the rim of the Pacific, the Earthquakes are deep-seated ones.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions

Question 18.
Explain the various types of rains. [3]
Based on origin, rainfall may be classified into three main types – the convectional, orographic or relief and the cyclonic or frontal.

Conventional Rain: The, air on being heated, becomes light and rises up in convection currents. As it rises, it expands and loses heat and consequently, condensation takes place and cumulous clouds are formed. With thunder and lightning, heavy rainfall takes place but this does not last long. Such rain is common in the summer or in the hotter part of the day. It is very common in the equatorial regions and interior parts of the continents, particularly in the Northern hemisphere.

Orographic Rain: When the saturated air mass comes across a mountain, it is forced to ascend and as it rises, it expands as a result the temperature falls, and the moisture is condensed. The chief characteristic of this sort of rain is that the windward slopes receive greater rainfall. After giving rain on the windward side, when these winds reach the other slope, they descend, and their temperature rises.

Cyclonic rain: The rain caused by cyclonic activity is called cyclonic rain. These rains take place in low pressure areas where air moves from low-pressure area to high-pressure area and this movement brings rainfall.

Question 19.
Explain the different types of ocean currents. [3]
The ocean currents may be classified based on their depth as surface currents and deep-water currents:
Surface currents: It constitutes about 10% of all the water in the ocean, these waters are the upper 400 m of the ocean.

Deep water currents: It makes up the other 90% of the ocean water. These waters move around the ocean basins due to variations in the density and gravity. Deep waters sink into the deep ocean basins at high latitudes, where the temperatures are cold enough to cause the density to increase.

Based on temperature:
(i) Cold currents bring cold water into warm water areas. These currents are usually found on the west coast of the continents in the low and middle latitudes (in both hemispheres) and on the East coast in the higher latitudes in the Northern hemisphere.
(ii) Warm currents bring warm water into cold-water areas and are usually observed on the east coast of continents in the low and middle latitudes (in both hemispheres). In the Northern hemisphere, they are found on the West coasts of continents in high latitudes.

Question 20.
What is soil mainly composed of? [3]
The soil is made up of the following things:

Clay: It is the smallest particles of broken rock in the soil, less than .0002 mm in diameter, so it is a fine dust. When wet, the individual particles stick together to form a solid mass. When they dry, they can be baked to a hard crust. Clay holds water, which does not drain away.

Silt: They are slightly larger pieces of rock than clay. It is also soft and smooth, with individual pieces close together. It too holds a lot of water, but the slightly larger particles make it a little better at draining then clay.

Sand: It is a small piece of rock (2 mm to .05 mm diameter) such as quartz or sandstone. Sand particles are large enough to allow water to drain easily, but they do not hold water and are easily blown around when dry.

Stones, rocks and boulders: They are larger pieces of rock, which are too big to form part of the soil but are found in many gardens. Under the surface layer of soil, they can help drainage.

Question 21.
What do you know about the ‘Disaster Management Bill’? [3]
The Disaster Management Bill, 2005, defines disaster as a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence affecting any area, arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, environment, and is of such nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.

Question 22.
What are the major factors that are responsible for the loss of biodiversity? What steps are needed to prevent them? [5]

  1. Since the last few decades, growth in human population has increased the rate of consumption of natural resources. It has accelerated the loss of species and habitation in different parts of the world. Tropical regions which occupy only about one-fourth of the total area of the world, contain about three fourth of the world human population.
  2. Over-exploitation of resources and deforestation have become rampant to fulfill the needs of the large population. As these tropical rain forests contain 50% of the species on the Earth, destruction of natural habitats have proved disastrous for the entire biosphere.
  3. Natural calamities such as Earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, droughts, etc., cause damage to the flora and fauna of the Earth, bringing change in the biodiversity of respective affected regions.
  4. Pesticides and other pollutants such as hydrocarbons and toxic heavy metals destroy the weak and sensitive species. Species, which are not the natural inhabitants of the local habitat, but are introduced into the system, are called exotic species.
  5. There are many examples when a natural biotic community of the ecosystem suffered extensive damage because of the introduction of exotic species. During the last few decades, poachers for their horns, tusks, hides, etc., hunted some animals like tigers, elephants, rhinoceros, crocodiles, minks and birds mercilessly. It has resulted in the rendering of certain types of organisms as an endangered category.

Question 23.
Why are the rivers in India considered important? [5]
Importance of the rivers in India:

Source of water: Rivers carry water and nutrients to areas all around the Earth. They play a very important part in the water cycle, acting as drainage channels for surface water. Rivers drain nearly 75% of the Earth’s land surface.

Habitats: Rivers provide excellent habitat and food for many of the Earth’s organisms. Many rare plants and trees grow by rivers. Ducks, voles, otters, and beavers make their homes on the riverbanks. Reeds and other plants like bulrushes grow along the riverbanks. Other animals use the river for food and drink. Birds such as kingfishers eat small fish from the river.

Delta: River deltas have many different species of wildlife. Insects, mammals and birds use the delta for their homes and for food.

Transport: Rivers provide travel routes for exploration, commerce and recreation. Many heavy industries prefer water transport for the movement of bulky raw as well as finished goods.

Farming: River valleys and plains provide fertile soils. Farmers in dry regions irrigate their cropland using water carried by irrigation ditched from nearby rivers.

Energy: Rivers are an important energy source. During the early industrial era, mills, shops and factories were built near fast-flowing rivers where water could be used to power machines. Today steep rivers are still used to power hydroelectric plants and their water turbines.

Question 24.
Notwithstanding the broad climatic unity, the climate of India has many regional variations. Elaborate this statement giving suitable examples. [5]
The monsoon regime emphasizes the unity of India with the rest of the Southeast Asian region. This view of broad unity of the monsoon type of climate should not, however, lead one to ignore its regional variations, which differentiate the weather and climate of different regions of India.

For example, the climate of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the South is so different from that of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the North, and yet all of these have a monsoon type of climate. While in the summer the mercury occasionally touches 55°C in the Western Rajasthan, it drops down to as low as minus 45°C in winter around Leh.

Churu in Rajasthan may record a temperature of 50°C or more on a June day while the mercury hardly touches 19°C in Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh) on the same day. On a December night, the temperature in Drass (Jammu and Kashmir) may drop down to minus 45°C while Tiruvanantapuram or Chennai on the same night records 20°C or 22°C.

These examples confirm that there are seasonal variations in temperature from place to place and from region to region in India. Not only this, if we take only a single place and record the temperature for just one day, variations are no less striking. In Kerala and in the Andaman Islands, the difference between day and night temperatures may be hardly seven or eight degree Celsius.

However, in the Thar Desert, if the day temperature is around 50°C, at night it may drop down considerably upto 15°-20°C. While snowfall occurs in the Himalayas, it only rains over the rest of the country. Similarly, variations are noticeable not only in the type of precipitation but also in its amount.

While Cherrapunji and Mawsynram in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya receive rainfall over 1,080 cm in a year, Jaisalmer in Rajasthan rarely gets more than 9 cm of rainfall during the same period. Tura situated in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya may receive an amount of rainfall in a single day, which is equal to 10 years of rainfall at Jaisalmer.

While the annual precipitation is less than 10 cm in the Northwest Himalayas and the western deserts, it exceeds 400 cm in Meghalaya. The Ganga delta and the coastal plains of Odisha are hit by strong rain-bearing storms almost every third or fifth day in July and August while the Coromandel coast, a thousand km to the South, goes generally dry during these months.

Most parts of the country get rainfall during June- September, but on the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, it rains at the beginning of the winter season. In spite of these differences and variations, the climate of India is monsoonal in rhythm and character.

Merit Batch

Question 25.
What are black soils? Describe their formation and characteristics. [5]
The black soils are generally clayey, deep, and impermeable. They swell and become sticky when they are wet and they shrink when dried. Therefore, during the dry season, these soils develop wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of self-ploughing. Volcanoes form them. They are also known as ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’.


  • Black soil covers most of the Deccan Plateau, which includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu. In the upper reaches of the Godavari and the Krishna, and the Northwestern part of the Deccan Plateau, the black soil is very deep.
  • Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially; the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season.
  • Chemically, the black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia, and alumina. They also contain potash. However, they lack in phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter. The colour of the soil ranges from deep black to grey. The black soil is highly retentive of moisture. It swells greatly on accumulating moisture. Strenuous effort is required to work on such soil in the rainy season, as it gets very sticky.

Question 26.
How are the Himalayan rivers different from the Peninsular rivers? [5]
Following are the important differences between Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers:

Himalayan Rivers

Peninsular River

The Himalayan mountain is covered with glaciers, thus they are perennial in nature. Due to Peninsular plateau and central highland, they are seasonal in nature.
Due to Peninsular plateau and central highland, they are seasonal in nature. Superimposed and rejuvenated resulting in trellis
radial and rectangular patterns.
They have relatively very large basins. They have relatively very smaller basins.
They have a long course. They have a long course.
They are young, youthful as well as active and make deepenings in the valleys. They are an old river with a graded profile and have almost reached their based level.

Question 27.
In the given outline map of the world there are five items marked as A, B, C, D and E. Identify the features with the help of information given below and write their correct names on the map: [5]
A. Largest country in Africa
B. An area of subsistence gathering
C. A lake of the Great Lakes Region
D. A terminal station of Trans-Siberian Railways
E. A major seaport
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions 27.1

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions 27.2

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions

Question 28.
Locate and label the following on the political outline map of India: [5]
A. A state of out-migration
B. A city with more than 10 million population
C. An important node of north-south corridor
D. A major cotton textile centre
E. State with lowest population density
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions 28.1

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Set 10 with Solutions 28.2