Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography with Solutions Set 2 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 2 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1. This Question paper has four sections: Section A, Section B, Section C and Section D
  2. In Section A question number 1 to 17 are MCQ Type Questions.
  3. In Section B question number 18-23 are Short Answer Type Questions (80-100) words. Question 18 & 19 are source based questions.
  4. In Section C question number 24 to 28 are Long Answer based Questions (120-150) words.
  5. In Section D question number 29 to 30 are Map based Questions having 5 sub parts.


Question 1.
In modem times, gathering has become: [1]
(A) primitive
(B) disintegrative
(C) commercial
(D) social
(C) commercial
Explanation: Modern time gatherers collect valuable plants such as leaves, barks of trees and medicinal plants and after simple processing sell the products in the market

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 2 with Solutions

Question 2.
Which of the following pairs is matched correctly? [1]

(A) North East Asia Jhum
(B) Mexico Comile
(C) Indonesia L.adang
(D) SriLanka Chena


(C) Indonesia L.adang

Question 3.
Small-scale industries uses: [1]
(A) local raw materials
(B) no raw materials
(C) imported raw materials
(D) high technology
(A) local raw materials
Explanation: Small-scale industries generally restrict their operation to local areas in order to meet the local and regional demands of the people. They cannot enlarge their business activities due to limited resources.

Question 4.
The highest level of decision makers or policy makers perform: [1]
(A) quaternary activities
(B) outsourcing
(C) quinary activities
(D) secondary activities
(B) outsourcing
Explanation: Quinary activities are services that focus on the creation, re-arrangement and interpretation of new and existing ideas; data interpretation and the use and evaluation of new technologies.

Question 5.
Air transport is the means of transportation. [1]
(A) easiest
(B) fastest
(C) slowest
(D) None of these
(B) fastest
Explanation: Air travel is the fastest method of transport around, and can cut hours or days off of a trip.

Question 6.
Silk route was between: [1]
(A) Rome and china
(B) China and India
(C) Japan and Sri Lanka
(D) Africa and Rome
(A) Rome and china
Explanation: The Silk Route Linked China with the West, that carried goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China

Question 7.

(A) French – Cocoa in East Africa
(B) British – Tea Garden in Sri Lanka
(C) Spanish – Coconut in Philippines
(D) Dutch – Sugarcane in Indonesia


(A) French – Cocoa in East Africa

Question 8.
Identify the phases in sequence order of their occurrence in population: [1]
(A) Population explosion, Stationary phase, Decreased growth, Steady growth
(B) Stationary phase, Decreased growth, Population explosion, Steady growth
(C) Stationary phase, Steady growth, Population explosion, Decreased growth
(D) Decreased growth, Stationary phase, Steady growth, Population explosion
(C) Stationary phase, Steady growth, Population explosion, Decreased growth

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 3 with Solutions

Question 9.
The state with the highest population in India is: [1]
(A) West Bengal
(B) Education
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Pleasant Climate
(C) Uttar Pradesh
Explanation: The population of Uttar Pradesh continues to grow at a high rate. Because of that high growth rate and a substantial reduction in children.

Question 10.
The main reason of intra migration in India is [1]
(A) Employment
(B) Education
(C) Health
(D) Pleasant Climate
(A) Employment
Explanation: The most important pull factor for the majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is the availability of better opportunities, inflow of regular work and relatively higher wages. explain the

Question 11.
Arrange the following in correct sequence. Following is the sequence of underground mining [1]
(i) It is from here underground galleries radiate to reach the minerals.
(ii) It requires specially designed lifts, drills, houloge vehicles, Ventillation system for safety and efficient movement of people and material.
(iii) In this method, vertical shafts have to be sunk.
(iv) Minerals are extracted but transporated to the surface through these passages.
(A) iii, i, iv, ii
(B) iv, iii, ii, i
(C) i, iv, ii, iii
(D) ii, iii, iv, i
(A) iii, i, iv, ii

Question 12.
Consider the following statements and choose the correct option from the given options: [1]
I. Regional analysis was used to study geography.
II. Elaborate description of all aspects of region were undertaken.
(A) Only Statement I is correct
(B) Both the statements are true and Statement II correctly presents the reason for Statement I
(C) Only Statement II is correct
(D) Both the Statements I and II are incorrect
(B) Both the statements are true and Statement II correctly presents the reason for Statement I
Explanation: The analysis of the regions is an important aspect is the studying of the geography as it provided important insights about the areas.

Question 13.
Assertion: Subsistence Agriculture is done for consumption purpose. [1]
Reason: Shifting cultivation or Slash and Burn agriculture is not same.
(A) Only Assertion is correct.
(B) Only Reason is correct.
(C) Both statements are correct and Statement II correctly explains Statement I.
(D) Both are correct but not related to each other.
(A) Only Assertion is correct.
Explanation: Shifting cultivation is also known as Slash and Burn Agriculture which is one and something.

Question 14.
Assertion: Technology has helped in population growth. [1]
Reason: Technology has let to improvement in material facilities and sanitation.
(A) Only Assertion is correct.
(B) Only Reason is correct.
(C) Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion.
(D) Both Assertion and Reason are correct but not to each other.
(C) Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion.
(C) Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion.
Explanation: The contributions of technology has been diverse and ranges from rise in population to effective communication and also increase in medical facilities

Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:
Depending on the mode of occurrence and the nature of the ore, mining is of two types: surface and underground mining. The surface mining also known as open-cast mining is the easiest and the cheapest way of mining minerals that occur close to the surface.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 3 with Solutions

Overhead costs such as safety precautions and equipment are relatively low in this method. The output is both large and rapid. When the ore lies deep below the surface, underground mining method (shaft method) has to be used. In this method, vertical shafts have to be sunk, from where underground galleries radiate to reach the minerals. Minerals are extracted and transported to the surface through these passages. It requires specially designed lifts, drills, haulage vehicles, ventilation system for safety and efficient movement of people and material. This method is risky.

Poisonous gases, fires, floods and caving in lead to fatal accidents. The developed economies are retreating from mining, processing and refining stages of production due to high labour costs, while the developing countries with large labour force and striving for higher standard of living are becoming more important. Several countries of Africa and few of south America and Asia have over fifty per cent of the earnings from minerals alone.

Question 15.
What is the other name of surface mining? [1]
(A) Close-cast mining
(B) Open-cast mining
(C) Loose-cast mining
(D) Free-cast mining
(B) Open-cast mining
Explanation: Open cast mining technique is that which extracts minerals from an open pit in the ground.

Question 16.
Which type of mining uses the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom? [1]
(A) Shaft mining
(B) Cast mining
(C) Surface mining
(D) Underground mining
(A) Shaft mining
Explanation: The shaft is excavated, or sunk, from the surface downward to a depth somewhat below the deepest planned mining horizon.

Question 17.
Why developed economies are retreating from mining, processing and refining stages of production? [1]
(A) Time-consuming
(B) Old and outdated method
(C) High labour cost
(D) None of the Above
(C) High labour cost
Explanation: Specialised and skilled labour is required in mining, processing and refining stages of production which is very expensive to hire.


Question 18.
Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow: [3]
Tertiary activities are related to the service sector. Manpower is an important component of the service sector as most of the tertiary activities are performed by skilled labour, professionally trained experts and consultants. Tertiary activities include both production and exchange.

The production involves the ‘provision’ of services that are ‘consumed’. The output is indirectly measured in terms of wages and salaries. Exchange, involves trade, transport and communication facilities that are used to overcome distance. Tertiary activities, therefore, involve the commercial output of services rather than the production of tangible goods.

They are not directly involved in the processing of physical raw materials. Common examples are the work of a plumber, electrician, technician, launderer, barber, shopkeeper, driver, cashier, teacher, doctor, lawyer and publisher, etc. The main difference between secondary activities and tertiary activities is that the expertise provided by services relies more heavily on specialised skills, experience and knowledge of the workers rather than on the production techniques, machinery and factory processes.

  1. State one example of tertiary sector.
  2. How is tertiary sector of economic importance to our country?
  3. Name an important component of the service sector.


1. Transport storage communication banking and trade are some examples of service or tertiary sector. Since these activities generate services rather than goods they promote primary and secondary sectors by providing expertise finance transportation. advertisement etc.

2. The service sector makes an important contribution to GDP in most countries, providing jobs, inputs and public services for the economy.

3. Manpower is an important component of the service sector. (1+2+2=5)

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 3 with Solutions

Question 19.
Study the diagram given below and answer the questions: [3]

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 2 with Solutions 1

  1. Name this trans-continental railway line?
  2. Which two oceans are connected by this trans-continental railway?
  3. How has this railway line helped in the economic development of this region?

1. This is Trans-Siberian railway line.

2. Pacific Ocean in the East and Atlantic Ocean in the West.

3. It is the most important route in Asia and the longest (9,332 km) double-tracked and electrified trans-continental railway in the world. It has helped in opening up its Asian region to West European markets. It runs across the Ural mountains and Yenisei rivers. Chita is an important agro-centre and Irkutsk, a fur centre. (1+2+2=5)

Question 20.
Why are the decades 1901-1921 referred to as a period of stationary phase of growth of India’s population? [3]
The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stationary phase of growth of India’s population as:

  1. In this period growth rate of population was very slow, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921. Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
  2. Poor health and medical services were responsible for the stagnant growth rate.
  3. Illiteracy of people at large and inefficient distribution system of food and other basic necessities were largely responsible for the high birth and death rates during this period.

1 × 3 = 3
Question 21.
Explain any three characteristics of clustered rural settlements of India. [3]

  1. The characteristics of rural settlement is a compact built up area of houses.
  2. In this type of village, the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms and pastures.
  3. The closely built up area and its intervening streets present some recognisable pattern or geometric shapes such as rectangular, radical, linear, etc.
  4. Such settlements are found in fertile alluvial plains and in the north-eastern states.
  5. Sometimes people live in compact village for security reasons, such as in Bundelkhand and Nagaland.
  6. In Rajasthan, scarcity of water has necessitated compact settlement for maximum utilisation of available water resources. (Any three) 1 × 3 = 3

Question 22.
Describe the three main achievements of the Green Revolution in India. [3]
“The assessment, efficient use and conservation of water are necessary to ensure development.” Explain in the light of values regarding conservation of w’ater resources.

  1. The Green Revolution paid dividends instantly and increased the foodgrains production at a very fast rate.
  2. This also gave a fillip to the development of a large number of agro-inputs, agro-processing industries, and small-scale industries.
  3. This strategy of agricultural development made the country self-reliant in foodgrains production.
    (1× 3 = 3)

Conservation of water resources is necessary because:

  1. There is a vast disparity between population and availability of water resources as India has about 16 per cent of world’s population, but has only 4 per cent of world’s water resources.
  2. The total utilisable water resources in India are very limited.
  3. The population is increasing at a faster rate and the demand is also increasing day by day.
  4. Pollution is making water resource unusable. Human values like responsibility, positive approach, awareness, contentment, cooperation and active citizenship are needed for conservation of water resources.

(Any three) 1 × 3 = 3

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 3 with Solutions

Question 23.
Differentiate between dryland farming and wetland farming.
What is the difference between dryland and wetland farming. [3]
(i) In India, the dryland farming is largely confined to the regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm. The wetland farming is confined to areas where the rainfall is in excess of soil moisture
requirement of plants during rainy season.

(ii) The areas of dryland farming grow hardy and drought resistant crops such as ragi, bajra, moong, gram and guar (fodder crops). The areas of wetland farming may face flood and soil erosion hazards. These areas grow various water intensive crops such as rice, jute and sugarcane.

(iii) The areas of dryland farming practise various measures of soil moisture conservation and rain water harvesting. The areas of wetland farming practise aquaculture in the fresh water bodies. 1 × 3 = 3


Question 24.
How do Quaternary services differ from Tertiary services? Give three reasons why the service sector in developing and developed countries is growing faster than the manufacturing sector? [5]
The activities which involve intangible outputs and are relatively attached from material production such as the services of a technician or a teacher are referred to as tertiary activities. The activities concerning knowledge such as education, information, research and development and more intellectual activities where the major task is to think, research and develop ideas are quaternary activities. The rising per capita income in both, developed and developing countries has generated proportionately larger increases in the many kinds of services.

There is also demand for educational services at all levels with the increase in the demand for literacy and computer skills at the workplace. Demand for non-direct production workers is also increasing proportionally in most manufacturing companies as these companies need more clerical staff, sales people, research and other workers. Medical services have also increased in Europe, North America and Japan because of an increase in demand for medical care from the elderly population. The increasing value of time has led to more household functions being accomplished outside of home.

Question 25.
Explain the term ‘cropping intensity.’ Describe the three cropping seasons in India. [5]
State any two characteristics each of the three distinct cropping seasons of India.
Cropping intensity means that a higher portion of the net area is being cropped more than once during one agricultural year. This also implies higher productivity per unit of arable land during one agricultural year.
Cropping seasons in India:
Kharif Season:

  • This season depends upon southwest monsoon.
  • This season falls between June to September.
  • Major crops- Rice, Jowar, Maize, Bajra, etc.

Rabi Season:

  • This season begins with onset of winter.
  • The period of this season is from October to March.
  • Major crops- Wheat, Gram, Mustard, Barley, etc.

Zaid Season:

  • It is a short duration between Rabi and Kharif.
  • Major crops of the season are-watermelons, fruits, vegetables, fodder crops.

Question 26.
How is the increasing demand for water becoming a challenge to India? [5]
Analyse the economic and social values of rainwater harvesting.
Increasing demand for water is a challenge to India:

  • India has a large population with limited water resources.
  • Rising demand for increasing population.
  • More water is required for irrigation to increase agricultural production as rainfall is highly variable.
  • Rapid industrial growth is increasing demand for water.
  • Urbanization and modern life style has increased the demand.
  • Water pollution has added to water shortage.

(Any five points to be analysed) (1X5=5)

Demand for water is increasing in most cities as every urban citizen requires almost double the amount of water that a rural citizen requires. Moreover, India is rapidly urbanising. Most of our cities were self-sufficient in meeting their water needs from extensive urban bodies to supply water to citizens. Today these water bodies have completely disappeared. Municipalities have been stretched to their limits to find water for the grown urban populations. The government as well as the private parties are extracting groundwater As a social advantage, it is used to reduce the consumption of groundwater many people around the world are using rainwater harvesting systems.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 3 with Solutions

This practice has been around for thousands of years and has been growing at a rapid pace. Till today, rainwater is used as a primary source of drinking water in several rural areas. The best thing about rainwater is that it is free from pollutants as well as salts, minerals and other natural and man made contaminants. In areas where there is excess rainfall, the surplus rainwater can be used for recharging groundwater through artificial recharge technique. As an economical advantage, rainwater is free from many chemicals found in groundwater, which makes it suitable for irrigation, industrial use and watering gardens. In fact, storing large reservoirs of harvested water is a great idea for areas where forest fires and bush fires are common during summer months

Question 27.
Write a note on the non-conventional sources of energy. [5]
Explain the importance of five non-conventional sources of energy with suitable examples.
Non – conventional sources of energy:

  1. Solar Energy
  2. Wind Energy
  3. Tidal and Wave Energy
  4. Geothermal Energy
  5. Bio-energy

1. Solar Energy:
Sun rays tapped in photovoltaic cells can be converted into energy, known as solar energy. Solar thermal technology has some relative advantages over all other non-renewable energy sources. It is cost competitive, environment friendly and easy to construct. It is generally used more in appliances like heaters, crop dryers, cookers, etc. The western part of India has greater potential for the development of solar energy in Gujarat and Rajasthan.

2. Wind Energy:
Wind energy is absolutely pollution free, inexhaustible source of energy. Permanent wind systems such as trade winds, westerlies and seasonal wind like monsoons have been used as source of energy. Besides these, local winds, land and sea breezes can also be used to produce electricity. The Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy is developing wind energy in India to lessen the burden of oil import bill. In Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka, favourable conditions for wind energy exist. Wind power plant at Lamba in Gujarat in Kachchh is the largest in Asia. Another, wind power plant is located at Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu.

3. Tidal and Wave Energy:
Persistent efforts were made to create a more efficient energy system from the ceaseless tidal waves and ocean current. Large tidal waves are known to occur along the west coast of India. Hence, India has great potential for the development of tidal energy along the coasts but so far these have not yet been utilised.

4. Geothermal Energy:
This energy is now considered to be one of the key energy sources which can be developed as an alternate source. The hot springs and geysers are being used since medieval period. In India, a geothermal energy plant has been commissioned at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh.

5. Bio-energy:
Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological products which includes agricultural residues, municipal, industrial and other wastes. Bio¬energy is a potential source of energy conversion. It can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy or gas for cooking. This will improve economic life of rural areas in developing countries, reduce environmental pollution, enhance self-reliance and reduce pressure on fuel wood. One such project converting municipal waste into energy is Okhla in Delhi. (1× 5 = 5)

Question 28.
Write short notes on drought-prone area programme and agro-climatic planning. How do these programmes help in the development of dryland agriculture in India? [5]
Explain the merits and demerits of road transport in India.
This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets.
(i) Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labor-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.

(ii) National Committee on Development of Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of this programme. It has been observed that this programme is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological balance.

(iii) Since, growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the drought-prone areas.

(iv) The other strategies of development of these areas include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level. The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, human and animal population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone area.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 3 with Solutions

(v) Broadly, the drought-prone area in India is spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought-prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and northern Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions.
(1× 5 = 5)


  1. Road transportation provides convenient service to people. Goods can be conveniently transported from sender to the receiver.
  2. Road transport or automobiles like trucks, motors, etc., are the best means for transporting perishable goods. They can carry such goods to the destination within short time at lower cost.
  3. Road transport is more flexible than other means of transport. If any road is blocked, the road automobiles like truck, bus can be taken through alternative ways. They do not need fixed road like railway line.
  4. It offers door-to-door service.


  1. The means of road transport like bus, trucks, etc. are not suitable in travelling or transporting goods to long distance.
  2. The service of road automobiles such as bus, trucks, etc. are not reliable. They have neither certain route nor fixed time.
  3. Road transport is risky. Sudden accident may happen. Necessary security arrangement cannot be made against such accident.
  4. During rainy season, unmetalled roads become unmotorable.
  5. Even metalled roads are seriously handicapped during heavy rains and floods. Cities suffer from chronic traffic congestions.


Question 29.
On the given Political map of the world, the following Seven features are shown. Identify any five of these features and write their correct names on the lines marked near each features. [5]

  • A major airport of Japan.
  • A major airport of China.
  • A major airport of Russia.
  • A major airport of Saudi Arabia.
  • A major airport of India.
  • The Terminal Station of a Transcontinental Railway.
  • A major Sea Port in South America.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 2 with Solutions 2
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 2 with Solutions 4

  • Tokyo
  • Beijing
  • Moscow
  • Jeddah
  • Mumbai
  • Perth
  • Valparaiso

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 3 with Solutions

Question 30.
On the given Political map of India, locate and label any five of the following with appropriate symbols. [5]

  • A metropolitan city of Uttar Pradesh.
  • An urban agglomeration (UA) that receives the highest number of in-migrants.
  • The state with the lowest female literacy rate in India.
  • A cantonment town in Punjab.
  • The state having the lowest density of population.
  • Mayurbhanj an iron ore mining area.
  • An international airport in Gujarat.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 2 with Solutions 3
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Set 2 with Solutions 5

  • Lucknow
  • Mumbai
  • Bihar
  • Jalandhar
  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Mayurbhanj
  • Ahmedabad