Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science with Solutions Set 2 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 2 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

1. Question paper comprises five Sections – A, B, C, D and E. There are 37 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A – From question 1 to 20 are MCQs of 1 mark each.
3. Section B – Question no. 21 to 24 are Very Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 40 words.
4. Section C contains Q.25to Q.29 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60 words.
5. Section D – Question no. 30 to 33 are long answer type questions, carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
6. Section-E – Questions no from 34 to 36 are case based questions with three sub questions and are of 4 marks each.
7. Section F – Question no. 37 is map based, carrying 5 marks with two parts, 37a from History (2 marks) and 37b from Geography (3 marks).
8. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
9. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.

Section – A
MCQs (1 x 20 = 20)

Question 1.
Identify which of the following statements about Income is not true.
(a) The average Income of a person in a country can be calculated by dividing the total income of the country with its total population.
(b) Income is the only indicator of development.
(c) Higher the income of a person, easier and better lifestyle will be.
(d) Average per capita income is used to compare development of countries. [1]
(b) Income is the only indicator of development.
Explanation: Income is not the only criterion used to measure development among countries. Various other measures like Literacy rate, mortality rate, availability of medical and educational facilities are also used.

Question 2.
To protest against the salt tax, Gandhiji undertook a march of over 240 miles. Where did this march begin from?
(a) Dandi
(b) Kheda
(c) Champaran
(d) Sabarmati [1]
(d) Sabarmati
Explanation: Gandhiji undertook a mass salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi to produce salt and break salt law. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day.

Caution:
Students must not get confused among the names of some important places. For example Dandi was the destination of the salt march. Sabarmati was where the march began.

Question 3.
What does the given picture portray?

(a) It portrays the power struggle between the prime minister and the president of Germany.
(b) It portrays the’ power dynamics and instability of a coalition government formed by two major political parties of Germany.
(c) It describes the rivalry between two political parties of Germany.
(d) It describes the divergent positions taken by people on several policy matters. Parties still run the government. [1]
(b) It portrays the power dynamics and instability of a coalition government formed by two major political parties of Germany.
Explanation: German government, when being run by the coalition in 2005 formed by two major rival political parties, was instable and the power dynamics were very skewed. The coalition government was hardly able to make decisions and agree on any issue.

Related Theory:
Social conflicts often lead to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

Question 4.
Arrange in chronological order:
(I) The Indian subcontinent is central to trade flows and a crucial point in their networks.
(II) Thousands therefore fled Europe for America.
(III) America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years.
(IV) The entry of the Europeans helped expand or redirect some of these flows towards Europe.
Codes:
(a) IV, I, III and II
(b) III, I, IV and II
(c) I, IV, III and II
(d) I, II, IV and III [1]
(c) I, IV, III and II
Explanation: The pre-modern world shrank greatly in the sixteenth century after European sailors found a sea route to Asia and also successfully crossed the western ocean to America. Trade flow was redirected towards Europe. European started trading with the native Americans and colonised it around the 16th century.

Later, when Europeans faced draught and political suppression, they fled to the Americas to save themselves.

Related Theory:
The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America was decisively under way by the mid-sixteenth century. European conquest was not just a result of superior firepower. In fact, the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox which destroyed native American societies since they were not immune to them.

Question 5.
Identify the political party based on the given hints:
(1) Founded in 1980
(2) Advocates for a uniform civil code
(3) Rose to power in 1998 as the leader of the NDA
(a) INC
(b) CPI (M)
(c) NCP
(d) BJP [1]
(d) BJP
Explanation: It was founded in 1980 based on Bhartiya Jana Sangh in 1951 which was founded by Syama Prasad Mukherjee. Cultural nationalism (or ‘Hindutva’) is an important element in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics.

Question 6.
Which of the following statements holds true for the cotton crop?
(a) The crop grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
(b) It requires low temperature and high rainfall.
(c) It is a Rabi crop.
(d) It requires no sunlight for its growth. [1]
(a) The crop grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau. Explanation: The crop is a kharif crop and requires bright sunshine to grow. It requires high temperature and light rainfall.

Question 7.
Match the items in column A with those of column B and find the most appropriate code which reflects the correctly matched pairs. [1]

 Party Name Year of formation (A) CPI (I) 1885 (B) BSP (II) 1999 (C) INC (III) 1925 (D) NCP (IV) 1984

(a) A-(I); B-(III), C-(II), D-(IV)
(b) A-(IV); B-(I), C-(II), D-(III)
(c) A-(III); B-(IV), C-(I), D-(II)
(d) A-(III); B-(II), C-(IV), D-(II)
(c) A- (III), B-(IV), C-(I), D-(II)
Explanation:
Tablee

Caution:
Forming such tables to learn various facts will help the students in memorization.

Question 8.
How did salt unify the Indians together?
(a) It was producted by all the classes in the country.
(b) It was consumed by all the classes and groups in the country
(c) It was important for Indian heritage
(d) It was important for Hindus who formed majority of the population. [1]
(b) It was consumed by all the classes and groups in the country.
Explanation: Salt was consumed by every class, group and community in the country and it made them feel like they were together in a struggle against their oppressors. Other issues were regional and affected only some groups on regions.

Related Theory:
The salt march kicked off the civil disobedience movement in 1930-31.

Question 9.
Which of the following is not a mail channel to facilitate quick delivery of mails?
(a) Bulk mail channel
(b) Green Channel
(c) Blue Channel
(d) Metro Channel [1]
(c) Blue Channel
Explanation: To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels for have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.

Related Theory:
The Indian postal network is the largest in the world. It handles parcels as well as personal written communications.

Question 10.
What is proto-industrialisation? Choose the correct option.
(a) Large-scale industrial production for an international market not based on factories.
(b) Small-scale crop production for national market.
(c) Small-scale industrial production for consumption by domestic market.
(d) Large-scale industrial production based on factories. [1]
(a) Large-scale industrial production for an international market not based on factories
Explanation: When one talks of industrial production, one refers to factory production. When one talks of industrial workers, one means factory workers. Histories of industrialisation begins with the setting up of the first factories. The term ‘proto’ means old, ancient or before time. Hence, protoindustrialisation means industrialisation before setting up factories.

Related Theory:
This proto-industrial system was a part of a network of commercial exchanges. It was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.

Question 11.
Choose the correctly matched pair.

 Column A Column B (A) Britannia (I) Italy (B) Germania (II) England (C) Marianne (III) France (D) Italia (IV) Germany

(b) Marianne – France
Related Theory:
The female allegory of France was known as Marianne. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.

German allegory was a symbol of German Republic and thus was hung in the national parliamentary assembly while the representatives created a draft constitution.
Britannia was the symbol of British nationand wore royal clothes.

Question 12.
There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below:
Assertion (A): Serfdom and bonded labour were abolished in Habsburg dominion and Russia.
Reason(R): Monarchs had realised that revolution could be resisted only by granting concessions to liberal-nationalist rebels.
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(c) Assertion (A) is true but Reason (R) is flase.
(d) Assertion (A) is false but Reason (R) is true. [1]
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A).

Explanation: To curb repression and threats of revolution, autocratic monarchies of Europe(central and eastern) began to introduce changes and concessions to lure these rebels. Thus, both serfdom and bonded labour were abolished.

Related Theory:
Non cooperation movement was organised to protest against the harsh treatment meted out to the khalifa as well.

Question 13.
There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below:
Assertion (A): In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel.
Reason(R): It provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy needs.
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(c) Assertion (A) is true but Reason (R) is false.
(d) Assertion (A) is false but Reason (R) is true. [1]
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
Explanation: India is heavily dependent upon coal to produce electricity which supplies power to almost 40-50% of Indian households, industries and institutions across the country. Our commercial energy requirement is majorly supplied by coal.

Related Theory:
Coal is found in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial They are of four types- Peat Lignite, Bituminous and Anthracite.

Question 14.
Which of the following statements does NOT stand true for the unorganised sector?
(a) Small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government.
(b) Rules and regulations are not followed.
(c) Jobs are lucrative and regular.
(d) No provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, medical leaves. 1.
(c) Jobs are lucrative and regular.
Explanation: Jobs are not lucrative or regular in the unorganised sector. They are very seasonal and small enough to not fulfill the requirements of the workers but because of their scarcity, they are in demand.

Regular and secure jobs is a characteristic of organised sector.

Question 15.
The following table contains the monthly income of citizens in four countries along with their per capita income.

 Countries Names Citizen A Citizen B Citizen C Per Capita Income Country A 11650 8900 2100 7550 Country B 50000 1230 19000 23410 Country C 6400 34500 1780 14227 Country D 4590 15680 A 8190

Fill in the blank marked A by choosing the most appropriate option.
(a) 34500
(b) 4300
(c) 5400
(d) 2340 [1]
(b) 4300
Explanation: Per Capita Income or Average Income (P) = Citizen A+B+C/3
Here, Since Per Capita Income is given, the formula would be:
P x 3 = A+B+C
P x 3 – (A + B) = C
C= 8190 x 3 – (4590 + 15680)
C = 24570 – 20,270
Citizen C’s monthly income has been represented by A in the table.

Question 16.
Why is the proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs very small?
(a) Women in India are not educated.
(b) Women in India are not allowed to work in offices.
(c) Women in India are bad at working in offices. They can only do household jobs.
(d) Women in India work harder than men but are still paid less than them. [1]
(d) Women in India work harder than men but are still paid less than them.
Explanation: Women in India work harder and for longer hours than men but are not paid enough for their contribution. They are not given enough credit and appreciation.

Question 17.
Fill in the blank by choosing the most appropriate
……………. became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.
(a) Europe
(b) Dubai
(c) United States of America
(d) India [1]
(c) United States of America
Explanation: In 1885, the big European powers met in Berlin to complete the carving up of Africa between them. Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century. Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers. The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Question 18.
Find the odd one out.
(a) NCP, Lok Jan Shakti Party, CPI, INC
(b) Rashtriya Lok Dal, SP, Rashtriya Janata Dal
(c) Jammu Kashmir National Conference, Shiromani Akali Dal, Biju Janata Party
(d) Forward Bloc, AIADMK, DMK [1]
(a) NCP, Lok Jan Shakti Party, CPI, INC
Explanation: The rest of the options only have State or Regional parties while here in the given option, INC, CPI and NCP are all National parties.

Related Theory:
A party that secures at least 6 per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State party. A party that secures at least six per cent of total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four States and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognised as a national party.

Question 19.
Which of the following can be classified as a patriarchal society?
(a) A society which considers men and women equal.
(b) A society which considers women superior to men.
(c) A society which believes animals are superior to humans.
(d) A society which believes men are superior to women. [1]
(d) A society which believes men are superior to women
Explanation: Patriarchal societies are male- led and male-dominated. They are considered to be societies which believe that men are superior and more capable of taking decisions for women than women themselves. Women are accorded an inferior position in the society. They are deprived of equal opportunities and freedom as their counterparts.

Related Theory:
India still has a patriarchal society. It dominates most part of Indian mainland.

Question 20.
Identify which of the following statements is (are) true about basic services and choose appropriate options from those given below:
(I) Banks, hospitals and educational institutions provide basic services.
(II) Basic services boost overall production of other sectors.
(III) Higher education for every civilian in a country is the most important basic service.
(IV) Governments of developing countries take responsibility for the provision of basic services.
(a) Only (I) and (II) are true.
(b) Only (II) is true.
(c) Only (III) and (IV) are true.
(d) (I), (II) and (IV) are true. [1]
(d) (I), (II) and (IV) are true
Explanation: Higher education is not a basic service. Provision of elementary or primary education is a basic service.
The government provides free education to all students below a certain age in government established schools.

Section – B
Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 x 4 = 8)

Question 21.
Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices in Japan in eighteenth century. Mention two such practices. [2]
(1) In the eighteenth century Japan, illustrated collections of paintings depicted an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings. Books were pocked with hand-printed material.

(2) An art form called ukiyo by Kitagawa Utamaro which means ‘pictures of the floating world’ or depiction of ordinary human experiences, especially urban ones was very popular too.

Question 22.
How is the Petroleum or mineral oil an important energy source in India?
OR
Mention two reasons why consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the country since Independence. [2]
Petroleum is an important energy source because:

• It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for industries.
• Petroleum refineries act as a nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries.

OR

• The economic development plans implemented since Independence necessarily required increasing supply of energy to keep working.
• Population has been constantly rising.

Energy in all forms is required for domestic and commercial usage at homes, offices and other institutions.

Question 23.
Do you think a democratic government is free of corruption? Elaborate upon your stand. [2]
No, democratic governments are not free of corruption practises. This can be evidenced using the following points:

• Democracies often frustrate the needs of the people. They ignore the demands of a majority of its population for economic benefit of few powerful leaders.
• The news carry hundreds of tales of corruption being practised freely in a democracy each day. Powerful institutions exploit the common citizens for money and power.

Question 24.
How do MNCs control production? [2]
MNCs control production in the following ways:

• Huge MNCs in developed countries place orders for production with small producers. This helps them control the production prices.
• They also control production by buying local companies or industry units to control the process of production.

Section – C
Short Answer Type Questions (3 x 5 = 15)

Question 25.
How do banks mediate between those who have surplus money and those who need money? [3]
Banks meditate between the two in the manner given below:

• People deposit money in the bank when they have a surplus amount and in return the banks pay an interest on these deposits.
• A major part of these deposits is used to extend loans to those who need it for their economic activities. In return, they are supposed to pay back the amount loaned with added interest.
• Banks lend on a higher rate of interest than they provide on deposits. The balance amount helps them to pay salaries and even lend again to customers if possible.

Question 26.
What are Software technology parks? State any two points of significance of the Information technology industry in India.
OR
Mention any three features of arid soil [3]
Software Technology Parks provide a single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.
IT industry is very significant because:

• A major impact of the rise of this industry has been on employment generation. The IT industry employs a very large number of people.
• It is one of the few industries in India which employs an appropriate number of women. This industry is less prone to discrimination on basis of gender.
• This industry has helped to earn forex reserves majorly in the last two or three years because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.

OR

Below are the features of Arid Soil:

• Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
• They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
• Due to dry climate and high temperature, evaporation rate is high. This makes the soil lack humus and moisture.
• The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by kankar nodules because of the increasing calcium content on Lower levels. (Mention any 3 points)

Question 27.
Why was martial law imposed in Punjab during the month of April in 1919? [3]
The martial law was imposed because:
(1) The Rowlatt Act was introduced by the British Government. Against this act, rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops closed down.

(2) British Government decided to clamp down on the nationalist leaders. To achieve that, local leaders were picked up from arrested in Amritsar.

(3) Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi. On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations. Due to this, martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

Question 28.
What do you mean by Communal politics? How does it impact a country’s administration? [3]
Communal politics is based on the assumption that different communities have different and/or conflicting aspirations and goals for development.
Communal politics affects a country in various ways:
(1) It might be used as a weapon to instigate people against one another and create political unrest.

(2) Parties influence people by involving the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeaL and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. They make selfish decisions affecting the development of the country.

(3) Often leaders with excellent administrative skills but insignificant religious reputation remain unsuccessful due to this.

Question 29.
Describe the bad effects of informal sources of credit on borrowers. [3]
Bad impact on borrowers of loaning from informal sources of credit can be described through the following points:
(1) Exorbitant high interest rates leads the borrowers to pay their hard-earned money as interest. The principal amount either remain the same or it gets multiplied over the years due to which the lender finds himself in a debt-trap.

(2) People are easily exploited as there is no organisation to supervise or check the lending activities of these creditors.

(3) When the borrowers tend to find themselves in a debt-trap situation, they are bound to sell their physically assests such as plot, agricultural land etc. to come out of this situation.

(4) Lack of fixed terms of credit some times makes the condition of the borrower miserable most of the times.
(Mention any 3 points)

Section – D
Long Answer Type Questions (5 x 4 = 20)

Question 30.
How is Decentralisation of power practised in India?
OR
Explain the features of the third tier of the rural government. [5]
When power is taken away from the Central and State governments and given to local government, it is called decentralisation.
(1) In India there are three tiers of government, government at the Central, state and local level. The third tier, commonly known as panchayats or self-government

(2) Need for decentralisation is acknowledged in our constitution. To make the local governments more effective and powerful, steps were taken in 1992 under which regular elections to local government institutions were made mandatory.

(3) Gram Panchayat is a council consisting of several ward members in groups of villages, often called Panch, and a President or Sarpanch. They are directly elected by all the adult population living in that ward. It is the sole decision-making body of the ward.

(4) One-third of all positions in the local governments have been reserved for women.

(5) The State governments are required to share some powers and revenues with local government bodies such as municipalities and local panchayats.

Related Theory:
Few gram panchayats are grouped together to form what is usually called a panchayat samiti at block level which further groups together to form Zila Parishad at the district level. Municipalities are the lowest level of self government for Urban areas.
OR
The features of the third tier of rural government are:
(1) Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayat Raj. Each Village or group of villages in some state has a Gram Panchayat.

(2) This is a council consisting of several ward members called Panchs and the president called Sarpanch. They are directly elected by the adult population living in the ward or village.

(3) The Panchayats work under the overall supervision of the Gram Sabha. All the voters of the village are the members of Gram Sabha.

(4) The local government structure goes right up to the district level. A few Gram panchayats are grouped together to form Panchayat Samiti or Block. The members of all the Blocks are elected by the panchayat members of the area.

(5) All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila Parishad.

Question 31.
Compare the views of liberals and conservatives.
OR
Explain any five factors responsible for the decline of the cotton textile industry in India in the mid-nineteenth century. [5]
The comparison between liberal and conservative views is as follows:
(1) Most of the followers of liberalism were people from middle classes while Conservatives were not many in number. Conservatives were the people who belonged to the upper class or associated with them.

(2) Liberals stood for the end of autocracy. They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government But they did not believe in universal adult franchises. Conservatives supported autocracy and were non-believers of a representative government.

(3) Liberals favoured radical changes like-abolition of clerical privileges. Conservatives favoured only those which could strengthen autocratic monarchies of Europe.

OR
Factors responsible for decline of cotton textile industry in India:

• Import duties were imposed.
• Export of British goods to India increased.
• Weavers could not compete with the machine made goods.
• The machine made goods were cheaper.
• Raw cotton exports from India to Britain shot up prices of cotton.
• Weaving regions declined and were left desolated. (Any five points to be explained)

Question 32.
Accept only those economic or developmental activities, that are people centric, environment-friendly and economically rewarding. Do you agree? Elaborate upon your stand.
OR
How has intensive industrialisation and urbanisation posed a great pressure on existing fresh water resources in India? Explain with two examples for each. [5]
I agree that we should accept only those economic or developmental activities, that are people centric, environment-friendly and economically rewarding. This is because-
(1) Sustainability is important in the process of Development. Otherwise the development might be extremely short-term with harmful long term implications.

(2) If environment-friendly activities were not supported, a lot of money might go into refurbishing the natural resources that have been lost due to the developmental economic activities.

(3) Activities should be both economically profitable and eco-friendly so that upcoming generations can also utilise the benefits bestowed by them.

(4) It is important that the activities we perform should be centred around people and their aspirations instead of being focussed around profit and materialistic experiences. Physical, mental and emotional demands must be met essentially.

(5) If either of these criteria were ignored, the balance of the world might heavily skew in one favour causing destruction and various problems for the humankind.
OR
Intensive industrialisation and urbanisation has put greater pressure on existing fresh water resources.
(1) With the rising number of industries, the demand for water, as a consequence, has grown tremendously.

(2) Industries are heavy users of fresh water as water is required for cooling the machines and processing of goods.

(3) The untreated industrial effluents which are discharged into water bodies pollute the water making it hazardous for human consumption causing qualitative scarcity.

(4) Urban Lifestyles have further aggravated the problem. Urban population over¬draws the groundwater by using their own groundwater pumping devices.

(5) Large populations have greater demand of water for consumption and domestic purposes which in turn has increased the stress on water bodies in regions surrounding them.

Question 33.
How can we protect the workers belonging to the unorganised sector? Mention five points.
OR
Suggest some of the developmental goals for people living in your locality or place you are residing? [5]
(1) The farmers, agricultural labours need to be supported through adequate facility for timely delivery of seeds, agricultural inputs, credit, storage facilities and marketing outlets.

(2) In the urban areas, unorganised sector workers belong to small-scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade and transport need to be protected through regular jobs and facilities for medical insurance, paid leaves and timely payment of dues.

(3) Small-scale industry also needs government’s support for procuring raw material and marketing of output.

(4) Contractual and casual workers in both rural and urban areas need to be protected from exploitation by stringently implemented labour laws, tighter model contracts for hirings and regular payment plans.

(5) All of these workers can be helped by setting up better employment opportunities, facilities for pension, provident funds and medical insurance in case of accident or death during work. Their families can be given free educational and medical care facilities.

OR
The developmental goals for my locality can
be as follows:

• There should be a primary health centre in the locality.
• There should be a school catering quality education up to higher secondary level for the children Living nearby.
• Government should construct pucca houses for people to be given them on subsidized cost.
• All weather roads in the locality must be constructed and well maintained by the authority responsible for it.
• There should be a provision of potable drinking water in each house in the locality.

Section – E
Case Based Questions (4 x 4 = 16)

Question 34.
The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata, Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways. The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) are part of this project.

This organisation was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and north-eastern border areas. These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.
(A) Identify the road development project that has been mentioned in the source. [1]
(B) Which regions are connected by the six-lane super highway roads? [1]
(C) Mention 2 characteristics of roadways. [2]
(A) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways Development Project
Explanation: The Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway Project joins the four main corners of the country through Super Highways- forming a quadrilateral on the map of India. The major objective of these Super Highways is to reduce the time and distance between four corner cities of India.

(B)

• They are extremely significant because roads act as feeder transport to other forms of transportation.
• They are easy to build and connect the remotest parts of the country.

Related Theory:

• National Highway Authority of India or NHAI has been entrusted with the responsibility of maintenance of Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways.
• The Central Public Works Department looks after the maintenance of National Highways.
• The State Public Works Department takes care of the State Highways- which link state capitals with different districts.

(C) Super highways connect the corner most districts of India. Srinagar, Kanyakumari, Silchar and Porbandar. They are all mega cities of the country. They are important as they either function as trading centres (ports) or are bordering our neighbouring countries. Maintaining proper network with such cities is very important.

Related Theory:
State capitals are connected with districts using State highways.

• Regions are connected with National Capital using National Highways.
• Places within districts are connected together by District roads.

Question 35.
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country. Usually, a federation has two levels of government. One is the government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of common national interest. The others are governments at the levels of provinces or states that look after much of the day-to-day administering of their state.

Both these levels of governments enjoy their power independent of the other. In this sense, federations are contrasted with a unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the central government. The exact balance of power between the central and the state government varies from one federation to another.
(A) Mention a distinguishing feature of a federal government. [1]
(B) What key change with regard to administration took place in Belgium in 1993? [1]
(C) Mention two features which make Sri Lankan government a unitary government. [2]
(A) In a federal system of governance, the Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.
Explanation: Different tiers/levels of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of Legislation, taxation and administration.

(B) Between 1970 and 1993, Belgium amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement to accomodate the linguistic diversity.

• They gave their regional government powers to Legislate upon local issues.
• Their state governments were made independent of the Central Government. This drastically changed their administration system.

(C) Under the unitary system, there is only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the central government. In Srilanka, the central government has all the powers.

(2) Sri Lanka also does not recognise or accomodate any diversity at any level through legislation. Such practises are usually associated with unitary system of government.

Question 36.
In general, MNCs set up production where it is close to the markets; where there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low costs and where the availability of other factors of production is assured. In addition, MNCs might look for government policies that look after their interests…A large MNC, producing industrial equipment, designs its products in research centres in the United States, and then has the components manufactured in China.

These are then shipped to Mexico and Eastern Europe where the products are assembled and the finished products are sold ail over the world. Meanwhile, the company’s customer care is carried out through call centres located in India.
(A) What was the main channel connecting distant countries in ancient items? [1]
(B) Define liberalisation. How has it benefitted the MNCs? [1]
(C) What other factors of production are required to keep a production unit or industry functional? [2]
Some factors of production required to keep an industry operational are:

• Land for the factory unit
• Power supply
• Transportation to and from the market
• Capital and Investment

Section – F
Map Based Questions (5)

Question 37
a. On the given political map of India, identify the places marked as A and B with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
(A) The place associated with the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(B) The place due to which the Non-Cooperation movement was called- off. [2]

b. On the same outline map of India locate and label any three of the following with suitable symbols
(a) Netaji Subash Chandra Bose Airport
(b) Hirak.ud-Dam
(c) New Mangalore – Seaport
(d) Gandhinagar- Software Technology Park [3]