Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science with Solutions Set 8 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

  1. Question paper comprises five Sections – A, B, C, D and E. There are 37 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A – From question 1 to 20 are MCQs of 1 mark each.
  3. Section B – Question no. 21 to 24 are Very Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 40 words.
  4. Section C contains Q.25to Q.29 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60 words.
  5. Section D – Question no. 30 to 33 are long answer type questions, carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
  6. Section-E – Questions no from 34 to 36 are case based questions with three sub questions and are of 4 marks each.
  7. Section F – Question no. 37 is map based, carrying 5 marks with two parts, 37a from History (2 marks) and 37b from Geography (3 marks).
  8. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
  9. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.

Section – A
MCQs (1 x 20 = 20)

Question 1.
Why did industries like gas works, breweries, book-binders prefer hand labour over machines in Victorian Britain?
(a) Machines were not available for most of the work.
(b) Demand was seasonal so maintaining machines for the entire year didn’t seem economic.
(c) The products of these industries were not in demand.
(d) The work was intricate and could not be done through machines. [1]
(b) Demand was seasonal so maintaining machines for the entire year didn’t seem economic.
Explanation: In these industries, the demand was seasonal. Industrialists did not want to introduce machines to get rid of human labour because maintenance for the rest of the year was expensive and unproductive. They preferred to employ workers only for a limited period of time during peak demand.

Related Theory:
Other such industries where demand fluctuated with season include printing and ship maintenance.

Question 2.
Which of the following movements for Independence was never called off by Gandhi?
(a) Non-Cooperation movement
(b) Khilafat movement
(c) Quit India movement
(d) Civil Disobedience movement [1]
(c) Quit India movement
Explanation: Non-Cooperation movement was called off by Gandhi in 1922 after violence ensued in Chauri Chaura at Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. Civil Disobedience movement was called off by Gandhi in December 1931 when he decided to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London.

Related Theory:
Khilafat Movement was a part of the Non¬cooperation movement. It was started to protest against the ill-treatment meted out to the Khalifa of Turkey by the British.

Question 3.
Identify this crop through the given hints: Sometimes, the new crops could make the difference between life and death. In Ireland, hundreds of thousands people died of starvation due to their dependency on a crop in mid 1840s.
(a) Tomato
(b) Groundnuts
(c) Maize
(d) Potato [1]
(d) Potato
Explanation: After potato was discovered in America by the Spaniards, it quickly became popular in the Europe. People’s diet centred around the crop so much that hundreds and thousands died later during the Irish potato famine where a pest disease affected the crop resulting in its failure.

Related Theory:
Many of our common foods come from the native inhabitants of America- American Indians. America had been cut off from the rest of the world before it was discovered by Columbus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions

Question 4.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi manufacture salt to violate a law?
(P) Salt tax bothered the rich and the poor alike. It joined people in a common struggle against their oppressors.
(Q) Breaking a law by manufacturing salt was the least violent and most effective rebellion.
(R) People were not. interested in breaking the law in any other form.
(a) Both P and R are correct
(b) Only P is correct
(c) P and Q are both correct
(d) P, Q and R are correct [1]
(c) P and Q are both correct.
Explanation: Mahatma Gandhi was confident that salt was a common link between the rich and the poor. Both classes used them everyday. The tax and British monopoly on salt production hurt both these classes. Hence, he chose salt as a symbol to unite Indians. It was
also important for Gandhi, as a supporter of Non-violence, to choose a battle which would unite Indians without shedding any blood. Hence, breaking this law was a safe bet.

Question 5.
Identify the political party using the given picture and hints:
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions 1
(2) It was formed in 1999 following a split in the Congress party.
(3) The party wants the high offices in the country to be restricted to natural born citizens of India.
(4) It is a major party in Maharashtra.
(a) NCP
(b) INC
(c) BJP
(d) BSP [1]
(a) NCP
Explanation: The Nationalist Congress Party was formed in 1999 after INC went through a split. The party espouses democracy, Gandhian secularism, social justice and freedom. Apart from Maharashtra, the party also has significant presence in North-east India.

Question 6.
Which of the following characteristics is NOT true about commercial farming?
(a) Use of higher doses of modern inputs, high yielding variety (HYV) seeds is prominent in this type of farming.
(b) Use of chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides is prominent in this type of farming.
(c) The degree of commercialisation of agriculture remains the same across various regions.
(d) Crops are grown for business and not sustenance. [1]
(c) The degree of commercialisation of agriculture remains the same across various regions.
Explanation: The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another. At some place, commercialisation is greater while in other states, crops are still grown for sustenance more than for commercial purposes.

Related Theory:
Rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.

Question 7.
Match the items in column A with those of column B and choose the most appropriate code which reflects the correctly matched pairs.

Column A Column B
(A) Khadins (I) Bikaner
(B) Kuls (II) Jaisalmer
(C) Drip Irrigation (III) Western Himalayas
(D) Tankas (IV) Meghalaya

(a) (A)-(II) (B)-(III) (C)-(IV) (D)-(I)
(b) (A)-(I) (B)-(IV) (C)-(II) (D)-(III)
(c) (A)-(III) (B)-(I) (C)-(II) (D)-(IV)
(d) (A)-(II) (B)-(l) (C)-(IV) (D)-(III) [1]
(a) A-(II). B-(III), C-(IV), D-(I)
Explanation: In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘Guls’ or ‘Kuls’ of the Western Himalayas for agriculture. ‘Khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ are agricultural fields converted into rain-fed storage structures in Rajasthan.

Drip Irrigation is practiced in North-Eastern States because of water scarcity prevalent in the region. Moisture retention of the soil is low in North-East India.

Question 8.
By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified. Which of the given statements supports this assertion?
(a) Reading became a monotonous activity.
(b) People started reading less books and more pamphlets.
(c) Merchants began using print everyday as they collected trade information.
(d) Women started reading more books. [1]
(c) Merchants began using print everyday as they collected trade information.
Explanation: The usage of print diversified. It was no longer only used for publishing books. It was also used by merchants for book keeping.

It is important for the students to read the chapter and understand each line rather than trying to remember specific details. Once the students grasp the concept, it will be easier to answer indirect questions like these which are given as an assertion.

Question 9.
How does the practice of decentralisation help a democracy?
(a) It increases voter bank
(b) It diversifies caste expression.
(c) It increases democratic participation.
(d) It gives birth to new political leaders. [1]
(c) It increases democratic participation.
Explanation: At the local level, it is possible for the people to directly participate in decision making. Thus, decentralisation helps to inculcate a habit of democratic participation.

Related Theory:
The local government is the best way to realise one important principle of democracy, namely local self-government.

Question 10.
Which of the following Indian companies has emerged as an MNC lately?
(a) Nykaa
(b) The man company
(c) Asian Paints
(d) Puma [1]
(c) Asian Paints
Explanation: Globalisation has enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as multinationals themselves. Some of these are Tata Motors (automobiles), Infosys (IT), Ranbaxy (medicines), Asian Paints (paints), Sundaram Fasteners (nuts and bolts) etc.

Related Theory:
An MNC has operation and production set up in more than one country. They cater to consumers based in different parts of the world.

For students to answer questions based on real- life situations, it is important that they be aware of current affairs and recent events. For example, for this question, it is important for the students to recognise these companies to be able to decide if they are MNCs or not

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions

Question 11.
Choose the correctly matched pair:

Column A Column B
(a) Automobile Industry Manganese
(b) Cement Industry Silica
(c) Aluminium Smelting Industry Bauxite
(d) Fertiliser Industry Alumina

(c) Aluminium Smelting Industry-Bauxite
Explanation: Bauxite is the raw material used in the smelters. It is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock.

Related Theory:
Aluminium smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

Question 12.
There are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below :
Assertion (A): Per Capita Income can adequately convey the status of development of a community.
Reason (R): High income helps them to afford most basic necessities including food, water, education and medical care.
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A).
(c) Assertion (A) is true but Reason (R) is false.
(d) Assertion (A) is false but Reason (R) is true. [1]
(d) Assertion (A) is false but Reason (R) is true.
Explanation: Per Capita Income cannot adequately convey the status of development of a community because income can only buy materialistic necessities. It cannot buy the citizens their rights, justice, equality and liberty which are equally important for holistic development.

Question 13.
Which country has a special arrangement for accommodation of linguistic diversity in form of a community government?
(a) Sri Lanka
(b) France
(c) Germany
(d) Belgium [1]
(d) Belgium
Explanation: Belgium has accommodated its linguistic diversity by electing a special community government which is chosen by individual linguistic groups.

Related Theory:
The community government has powers regarding cultural, educational and other language related issues.

Question 14.
Sources of Credit per Rs. 10,000 for rural households have been tabulated below :

Sources of Credit Percentage
Government 1%
Cooperative Society Banks 25%
Commercial Banks 25%
Landlords 1%
Relatives and Friends 8%
Other non-lnstitutional agencies 2%
Money lenders 33%
Other Institutional agencies 5%

Which of the following inferences can be made after reading the given table?
(a) Rural Indians were mainly borrowing from informal sources of credit in 2012.
(b) In India, Banks are the largest source of credit for rural people.
(c) Cooperative societies/Banks lend to common people more than commercial Banks.
(d) Relatives and friends are the go-to sources for rural people when they require credit. [1]
(b) In India, Banks are the largest source of credit for rural people.
Explanation: In India, Banks are the largest source of credit for rural people. Here, Banks include both the cooperative and commercial banks which together form the source of half of the total credit borrowed by the rural households. According to the given table, rural Indian households were mainly borrowing from formal sources of credit in 2012 (25%+25%+5%+1= 56%).

Question 15.
Read the given btable.
Some data regarding India and its neighbours for 2017:

Country Gross national income (GNI) per capita Life Ex-pectancy at birth (2017) Mean years of school¬ing of peo¬ple aged 25 and above HDI Rank in the World (2018)
Srilanka 11326 75.5 10.9 76
India 6653 68.8 6.4 130
Mayan-mar 5567 66.7 4.9 148
Pakistan 5331 66.6 5.2 150
Nepal 2471 70.6 4.9 149
Bangla-desh 3677 72.8 5.8 136

Based on your reading of the given table, choose the country the citizens of which have a comparatively better chance of holistic development.
(a) India
(b) Bangladesh
(c) Pakistan
(d) Sri Lanka [1]
(d) Sri Lanka
Explanation: Since, almost all the indicators in the given table show better values for Sri Lanka- namely the per capita income, life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling, it provides better opportunities for holistic development than the rest of the countries.

Related Theory:
This report has been released by the UNDP which considers not just per capita income but also educational and medical facilities available for the citizens of the country.

Question 16.
Find the odd one out:
(a) Farmer, Shopkeeper, Civil Engineer
(b) Manufacturing technician, Fisherman, Doctor
(c) Food processor, Construction worker, Worker in Textile mill
(d) Miner, Hotelier, Oilfield worker [1]
(c) Food processor, Construction worker, Worker in textile mill.
Explanation: Other options have a mixture of employees and workers from all sectors of economic activities primary, secondary and tertiary sector.
Food processor, construction workers, workers in textile mills all belong to the secondary sector of economic activties. They process goods obtained from the primary sector.

Question 17.
Which of the following industries has received an immense boost after the Green Revolution?
(a) Automobile industry
(b) Chemical industry
(c) Textile industry
(d) Fertiliser industry [1]
(d) Fertiliser industry
Explanation: Green Revolution was introduced to make India self-sufficient in producing food and other crops for its sustenance by employing new hybrid variety seeds, equipment, chemical fertilisers etc This led to a boost in the expansion of the fertiliser industry as a consequence.

Related Theory:
Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production. Other significant producers are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.

Question 18.
What were the contents of the letter written by Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) It included the new Constitution of India. Mahatma Gandhi wanted the British to run India based on that.
(b) The letter contained 11 demands from the Indian citizens. They included fair treatment, removal of salt duty, freedom to revolutionaries and other prisoners etc.
(c) They letter included a contract from the Indian National Congress to rule India as partners.
(d) The letter included a request to form a new political party apart from the Indian National Congress. [1]
(b) The letter contained 11 demands from the Indian citizens. They included fair treatment, removal of salt duty, freedom to revolutionaries and other prisoners, etc.
Explanation: On 31st January, 1930, he sent a ^letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands-of general and specific interests. These demands addressed the requests of different classes, from industrialists to peasants.

Related Theory:
Mahatma Gandhi found salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. Mahatma Gandhi believed that the tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule.

Question 19.
Which continent was monumentally affected by Rinderpest in the nineteenth century?
(a) Asia
(b) Africa
(c) America
(d) Australia [1]
(b) Africa
Explanation: Rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa. Entering Africa in the east, rinderpest moved west ‘like forest fire’, reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. Rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle.

Related Theory:
This disease destroyed the livelihoods of Africans. Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.

Question 20.
Which of the following statements stand(s) true about the primary sector?
(I) Almost half of the workers in the country are working in the primary sector.
(II) Primary sector is the most important contributor in total production of goods and services in the country.
(III) Primary sector is dependent on tertiary sector.
(a) Only I
(b) I and II
(c) I and III
(d) I, II and III [1]
(c) I and III
Explanation: With time, the primary sector has not been able to retain its position as the most important contributor to the GDP. Tertiary sector has replaced the primary sector from that position because it generates more revenue.

Section – B
Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 x 4 = 8)

Question 21.
Why is it significant to release reports like the Human Development Report by the UNDP or the World Bank? Mention any two points. [2]
It is significant to release such reports because:
(1) Countries in different corners of the world develop at different pace. It is extremely important to know which countries are still facing issues like poverty, hunger, illiteracy, malnutrition or diseases to be able to help them through grants and transfer of technology.

(2) Every country has different standards of calculating poverty and development. Such reports set common standards for comparison.

Question 22.
Differentiate between the Eastern and Western world based on a picture called Two Magicians which was published in the 20th century. [2]
The Two magicians was a picture published on the cover of a trade magazine in 1901. It distinguished between the Eastern and the Western world in the following ways:
(1) It signifies East through the figure of Aladdin, a fictional character, who built a palace through his magic lamp. This shows how the Eastern world was still steeped in mysticism, antiquity and fantasy.

(2) It shows the Western world through a modern mechanic who built bridges, ships and high rise building which indicates that the West was developing, advancing and learning about newer technology unlike the poor but pompous East

Question 23.
Mention any two reasons why one should prefer democracy over any other form of government.
How has the constitutional status granted to local government units helped democracy? [2]
Two reasons why one should prefer Democracy over other forms of government are:

  • Democracy promotes and enhances the dignity of an individual It guarantees them a platform to put forth their opinion.
  • Democracy provides methods to solve social and political conflicts which in turn makes expression of social, economic and political differences easier.

The Constitutional status granted to local governments has helped in deepening the democracy immensely. This can be understood by the following points:

  • It has increased minority and women’s representation in the government of institutions.
  • It has helped in imparting power to the most elemental unit of a society- a common citizen.

Question 24.
Mention any two features of Alluvial soil. [2]
Alluvial soil is the most widespread soil in India. It is spread across the entire Gangetic plains. Some of its features are:

  • Alluvial soils are very fertile. They contain adequate content of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
  • Alluvial soils are classified as old alluvial soil (Bangar) and new alluvial soil (Khadar).

To answer such questions, it is important for the students to memorise and recall the features of different classes and types discussed in each chapter. In this case, for example, students should be able to recall different features of each type of soil. To achieve that students should draw individual tables or helpful figures to understand the features and memorise them efficiently.

Section – C
Short Answer Type Questions (3 x 5 = 15)

Question 25.
How did the birth of nation-states in the nineteenth century rearrange the world into new groups and factions? [3]
This can be understood as:

  • Before the birth of nation-states, the world was mostly divided into multi-national dynastic empires and provinces. The criterion of identification was not based on territory.
  • After nation-states were born, people began to identify with one another based on common language, political and economic struggle, common territory and values. This united them into different groups and factions than before.
  • For example, multi-national empires in Europe broke down into multiple nation-states, each with their own language, belief system, flags, lifestyle and struggles.

France was truly considered to be the harbinger of change in Europe. This can be evidenced through these points:

  • France has always been the first nation to ignite a spark of rebellion among other European nations. French revolution led to the birth of nation states. It popularised values like equality, liberty and fraternity.
  • The July upheaval of 1830 which dethroned Bourbon kings and allowed the liberal revolutionaries to rule caused a revolution in Brussels which in turn led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  • French revolutionaries were also responsible for liberating the people of Europe from despotism. They carried this message of nationalism and patriotism across Europe.

It is important for the students to read the questions carefully before attempting to write it. The keywords used by the examiners set the tone for the answer. For example, in this case, the question only asks the students to support Metternich’s statements. Only those incidents which involve France and are relevant to support the assertion should be included in the answer.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions

Question 26.
In general, MNCs set up production where it is close to the markets. Do you agree? What other factors do MNCs consider while setting up a factory? [3]
Yes, MNCs mostly set up production units or factories in the proximity of a well functioning market This is to reduce the cost of transportation and thus gain greater profits. Other factors considered by MNCs include:
(1) Availability of cheap labour – Cheap and abundant labour is extremely important for any factory to function without any obstructions. Rising labour wages can exponentially increase the cost of production.

(2) Availability of power, water and other factors of production at low costs – Cheap inputs without any supply obstructions help to produce efficiently.

(3) MNCs also set up factories at places with loosely implemented labour laws and regulations.

Question 27.
How can power-sharing reduce the fear of despotism in a country? Mention any three points. [3]
Power sharing reduces the fear of despotism in the following ways:
(1) Power-sharing, by definition, can be understood as the process of distributing the responsibility and power to administer a state among different factions, institutions, communities and representatives.

(2) It provides representation to all the different communities residing the country. As a consequence, resources are equitably distributed and in most cases, a social conflict is avoided.

(3) Power sharing reduces the possibility of a majority community oppressing a minority community by using political power.

Question 28.
Mention three benefits of airway transportation. [3]
Airways is an extremely beneficial mode of transportation. This can be explained through the following points:
(1) Airways is the fastest and most comfortable form of transportation.

(2) It makes difficult terrains like hills, mountains, deserts and forests extremely accessible. Airways is extremely important and useful for the citizens of the north-eastern states.

(3) Air transport also helps in providing relief to disaster-struck regions in the country. Helicopters help drop food packets and planes are used to evacuate people out of areas under immense stress.

Question 29.
Suggest a few measures to reform political parties in India. [3]
Three measures to reform political parties are:
(1) Proper laws should be made to regulate the internal functioning of a party. Party workers should be made to maintain attendance registers and follow a constitution to administer these parties.

(2) Political parties should reserve seats for women and people belonging to different minority communities at positions of influence. This will enable parties to be more representative and fair.

(3) Political parties should be held accountable for their decisions and actions. They should be funded by the state to contest elections.

Section – D
Long Answer Type Questions (5 x 4 = 20)

Question 30.
How did the attitude of the East India Company towards the Indian press change after 1857? Support your argument using five points.
Indian trade had played a crucial role in the late nineteenth century world economy. Analyze the statement. [5]
After the revolt of 1857, the attitude of the East India Company towards the Indian press changed drastically in the following ways:
(1) The British believed that the native press was mainly responsible for instigating and spreading the rebellion and demanded severe restrictions on its freedom.

(2) Vernacular newspapers were becoming nationalist in their fervour. British officers discussed implementing stringent measures to control what was being published in these papers and pamphlets.

(3) To censor reports and editorials in such newspapers, the Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878. It was based on the Irish Press laws.

(4) Papers were rigidly tracked. The reports were judged and if suspected to be seditious, the newspapers were warned and press machines were confiscated.

(5) Prosecution measures were made even more rigorous after some protests were observed.
The role of Indian trade was:
(1) Trade Surplus: Britain had a trade surplus with India which it used to balance its trade deficit with other countries.

(2) Home charges : Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay ‘home charges’ which included private remittances by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debts and pensions of the British officials in India.

(3) Major supplier of cotton : India remained a major supplier of raw cotton to Britain. This helped British textile industries to grow.

(4) Supplier of indentured workers: Many indentured workers from Bihar. Uttar Pradesh, Central India and Tamil Nadu migrated to other countries to work in mines and plantations.

(5) India traded in opium with China, the proceeds of which financed British ventures and imports.

Question 31.
What is the benefit of using non-conventional sources of energy? Mention three non- conventional sources of energy.
Describe the mechanism of Rainwater Harvesting. [5]
Using non-conventional sources of energy is beneficial for the environment They reduce humanity’s dependence upon coal, oil and gas which are not just finite and non-renewable but are also mainly responsible for polluting the environment. Unconventional sources of energy provide a viable alternative to such sources.

Some non-conventional sources of energy are as follows:

  • Solar Energy: Using photovoltaic technology, solar energy can be directly converted into electricity. It also helps rural households to reduce their dependency upon firewood and other fuels.
  • Nuclear Energy: It is the energy obtained by altering the structure of atoms. The energy released is used to generate electricity.
  • Wind Energy: Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country. It is clean and viable. India has immense potential for it.


  • Rainwater harvesting systems include capturing of rainwater by directing it from large, flat surfaces (e.g. roofs) to underground or over-ground holding tanks.
  • The collected rainwater is later filtered and pumped directly to the appliances or to a header tank.
  • Rainwater from the first shower is not collected and used because it washes the dirt away from the collecting surfaces.
  • The rainwater from subsequent showers is collected. This roof water is an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
  • It is commonly referred to as Palar-Pani and is considered as the purest form of natural water.

Question 32.
What does the term ‘Secular’ mean? How does the Indian Constitution ensure that India is a secular country?
What are feminist movements ? How have they brought improvement in the condition of women? [5]
Secularism entails separation of religion and the state. The principle of secularism means giving equal respect to all religions and cultural beliefs without any prejudice and discrimination.

To ensure India is a secular country, the Indian Constitution laid down the following rules:
(1) Indian state has no officially recognised religion. It practises total non-interference in religious matters unless it is to upkeep the peace and harmony in the country.

(2) The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities, freedom to profess, propogate, practise their beliefs and religions or not to follow any.

(3) The Constitution prohibits any form of discrimination against any citizen because of any cultural, religious or personal beliefs.

(4) Indian Constitution allows the state to interfere in religious matters only to ensure equality, harmony and mutual peace.

(5) The Constitution also allows all religions to establish religious and educational institutions for minority communities. It establishes all forms of equality through the Fundamental Rights.
A woman or man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for both women and men is a feminist. Thus, these feminist movements aimed at achieving equality in personal and family life.
As a result of these feminist movements, the condition of women has improved in the following ways:
(1) Their role in public life was improved. They can now vote, contest elections, drive, travel, establish a business all by themselves. Earlier they required permission from their male counter parts.

(2) They are working as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, managers, college and university teachers etc. These positions were not considered suitable for women earlier.

(3) In Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high. In India and other developing countries, their position and role as political participants is rising.

Question 33.
Mention any five reasons or situations in which a person might need to borrow money.
Why is sustainability an important component of development? Discuss a situation where one without the other would be extremely disastrous for the humanity. [5]
One might need to borrow money on credit in the following five situations:
(1) Farmers require credit to sow or harvest crops in every growing season. They borrow at the beginning of growing seasons to buy HYV seeds, advanced equipment and tools.

(2) People belonging to the middle class often require to borrow credit for personal purposes- for marriage, medical care etc.

(3) Students require to borrow money for educational purposes. Students require educational loans to migrate or pay their tuition fees.

(4) Entrepreneurs and Businessmen constantly require credit to invest back in their ventures to increase their profits.

(5) People suffering from medical emergencies might often require credit on short notices.
Sustainability is an extremely integral component of development today. This is because technological advancement has driven the world towards instability and mass destruction of finitely available resources.
(1) Sustainability can be understood as the first step in the right direction. Sustainable development entails no compromise with the pace of development but keeps the quality of development and the cost of development at par with that of its pace.

(2) Sustainable development keeps in mind the needs of the present as well as coming generations at the same pedestal.

(3) A situation where sustainability without development and vice versa would prove to be disastrous may be the development and usage of biological weapons.

(4) Bio-weapons have been used in the past to ruin settlements and communities for the purpose of war and capturing authority.

(5) If sustainability was not kept in mind, one could create a lethal weapon capable of destroying the humanity but if development (including vaccines required to keep such weapons in check) was not thought of, more destruction would be guaranteed. The same can be said in terms of utilisation of resources like coal and petroleum.

Section – E
Case Based Questions (4 x 3 = 12)

Question 34.
Read the given source and answer the following questions:
Nature worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected. Such beliefs have preserved several virgin forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves (the forests of God and Goddesses). These patches of forest or parts of large forests have been left untouched by the local people and any interference with them is banned. Certain societies revere a particular tree which they have preserved from time immemorial
(A) Which practise can nature worship be called an example of? [1]
(B) How are Sacred groves preserved? [1]
(C) Why are these forests called virgin? [2]
(A) Nature worship can be understood as an example of a community conservation programme because the entire native community participates in the practise without any interference from the government.

Related Theory:
The decision to ascribe such values and preserve the flora and fauna is of the entire community by extension. Joint Forest Management is another form of Community Conservation programme. Social forestry also involves similar approach.

(B) Sacred groves have been preserved by native communities by ascribing religious meanings to the available flora and fauna in the region. They are called forests of Gods and Goddesses.

(C) Human interference apart from the native community is not allowed in such forests. This is why these forests are known as Virgin or untouched. They are preserved in their virgin or unadulterated state. No other alien or foreign species is introduced due to the fear of an ecological succession.

Question 35.
Read the given source and answer the following questions:
But it does not mean that there is only a one-way relation between caste and politics. Politics too influences the caste system and caste identities by bringing them into the political arena. Thus, it is not politics that gets caste-ridden, it is the caste that gets politicised. This takes several forms.
(A) How does caste influence politics? [1]
(B) How does the expression of caste help in reducing the social conflicts? [1]
(C) How is racism different from caste ism? [2]
(A) When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind, the caste composition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes, so as to muster necessary support to win elections. This is how caste influences politics.

Related Theory:
Voters keep in mind the caste of their candidates white choosing their representatives. People within the same caste or community have different interests depending on their economic condition. Rich and poor or men and women from the same caste often vote very differently.

(B) Expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power which makes the institutions administrating the state more representative and fair.

Related Theory:
This reduces the possibility of sudden outbursts of anger caused due to exploitation and oppression.

(C) Racism basically distinguishes between people based on their skin colour. On the other hand, the Indian Varna system gave way to a distorted form of differentiation, the caste system, where one’s caste determines their position in the society. Racism doesn’t allow any mobility within the system. It is permanent. The caste system is rigid but permits mobility in specific situations.

Related Theory:
The Anti-Apartheid movement was kick-started against racism which was destroying the social structure of South Africa.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions

Question 36.
Read the given source and answer the following questions:
First as wheat, then as flour and finally as biscuits. The value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector for that year. And the sum of production in the three sectors gives what is called the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a particular year. GDP shows how big the economy is.
(A) What does the GDP measure? [1]
(B) What is meant by ‘Gross’ in the term ‘Gross Domestic Product’? [1]
(C) Which institution calculates the GDP of India? [2]
(A) The GDP measures the value of the total production of a nation in one financial year. It includes the total value of production of final goods and services.

(B) The term ‘Gross’ means the value of total production without any tax deductions from the amount. The opposite to Gross is Net which is calculated after reducing all the tax deductions from the Gross amount.

Related Theory:
Other phrases are also meanings of Gross but they do not stand true when put in the context of the term, Gross Domestic Product

(C) (1) In India, the mammoth task of measuring GDP is undertaken by the Central Statistics Office under the Ministry of Statistics and Program.

(2) This ministry with the help of various government departments of all the Indian states and union territories, collects information relating to total volume of goods and services and their prices and then estimates the GDP.

Section – F
Map Based Questions (5 x 4 = 20)

Question 37.
(a) On the given outline Political Map of India, identify the places marked as A and B with the help of following information and write their correct name on the lines marked near it.
(A) The place where Non Cooperation Movement was called off due to violence.
(B) Mahatma Gandhi organized a Satgagraha Movement at this place for indigo planters. [2]

(b) On the same given map of India, locate and label any three of the following with suitable symbols:
(a) Rana Pratap Sagar-Dam
(b) Amritsar-Raja Sansi Airport
(c) Bengaluru-Software Technology Park
(d) Vishakhapatnam-Port [3]
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions 2
(a) (A) Chauri Chaura (B) Champaran
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Set 8 with Solutions 3